How To Solve Every Global Crisis

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13.05.21 – 198 7053:34
The Lost Penis Enigma
Published on 16 Sep 2021, 15:31
Check out the heroes who saved the ozone layer at
Lots of global problems seem intractable, but there’s a formula for success that we can follow.

To learn more about this topic, start your googling with these keywords:
Ozone layer: A thin layer of ozone concentrated in the Earth’s stratosphere roughly 10 kilometers above that absorbs most of the sun’s ultraviolet radiation before it hits the Earth’s surface.
Ultraviolet radiation: Invisible rays of energy that come from the sun that can be harmful to humans and other lifeforms.
Chlorofluorocarbons: Also known as CFCs, these long man-made molecules used to be widely used refrigerants and solvents before it was discovered that - when exposed to ultraviolet radiation - their chlorine atoms would break off and combine with ozone molecules.
Smallpox: A virus that killed more than half a billion humans before being eradicated in 1980.
Disease Surveillance: A practice by which disease progressions are closely monitored in order to minimize the harm caused by outbreaks.

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David Goldenberg (@dgoldenberg) | Script Writer, Narrator and Director
Ever Salazar (@eversalazar) | Illustration, Video Editing and Animation
Nathaniel Schroeder | Music

MinuteEarth is produced by Neptune Studios LLC

Sarah Berman • Arcadi Garcia i Rius
David Goldenberg • Julián Gustavo Gómez
Melissa Hayes • Alex Reich • Henry Reich • Peter Reich
Ever Salazar • Leonardo Souza • Kate Yoshida

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Ochmann, Sophie, and Max Roser. “Smallpox.” Our World in Data, 2018, Data on Smallpox.
Henderson, D A. SMALLPOX - the DEATH of a DISEASE : The inside Story of Eradicating a Worldwide Killer. S.L., Prometheus, 2021, pp. 57–61.
CDC. “History of Smallpox.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 20 Feb. 2021,
Waxman, Olivia B. 2019. “Reagan Administration Officials at First Dismissed the Ozone Hole. Here’s What Changed.” Time. April 9, 2019.
Velders, G. J. M., S. O. Andersen, J. S. Daniel, D. W. Fahey, and M. McFarland. 2007. “The Importance of the Montreal Protocol in Protecting Climate.” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104 (12): 4814–19.
US Department of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. n.d. “Susan Solomon: Pioneering Atmospheric Scientist.” Accessed July 20, 2021.
Solomon, Susan. 2019. “The Discovery of the Antarctic Ozone Hole.” Nature 575 (7781): 46–47.
Pyle, John, and Neil Harris. 2013. “Joe Farman (1930–2013).” Nature 498 (7455): 435–35.
Foege, William H, and Milbank Memorial Fund. House on Fire : The Fight to Eradicate Smallpox. Berkeley, University Of California Press, 2012
Future of Life Institute. “Future of Life Award 2020: Saving 200,000,000 Lives by Eradicating Smallpox.” Future of Life Institute, Lucas Perry, 11 Dec. 2020,